In vitro fertilisation (IVF / ICSI)
The purpose is to obtain embryos to be transferred to the uterus and give a pregnancy
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the technique in which eggs are fertilized in a laboratory to obtain embryos. After the embryos have been cultivated for a few days, they are transferred to the uterus to obtain a pregnancy.
The assisted reproduction technique to be used will be determined by the examinations and tests performed in the fertility test prior to any technique.
How is treatment ; IVF performed?
In vitro fertilization takes place in the following phases:
Through ovarian stimulation, we obtain an increase in the growth and development of the follicles located in the ovary.
hanks to the controlled ovarian stimulation through the administration of hormone formulas we will achieve a greater number of eggs than in a normal menstrual cycle, which is usually a single egg. The greater the number of eggs, the more chances there are of obtaining a greater number of embryos. So, we will obtain several embryos, from which we will choose the best quality ones to transfer to the future mother and thus increase the chances of achieving a pregnancy.
The management of this phase is carried out by ultrasounds and hormonal analysis. Ovarian stimulation lasts between 8 and 12 days approximately.
Once the size of the follicles is optimal, the eggs retrieval is programmed and is carried out under sedation and takes approximately 15 minutes. It is a painless procedure.
No hospital admission is required; after one or two hours, the patient can go home to rest.
The liquid obtained from the follicles will contain the eggs, which will later be recovered in the laboratory and await insemination.
We next prepare the sperm sample in the laboratory and treat it to improve its fertilization capacity.
Sperm capacitation is the process by which the sperm with the highest probability of fertilizing from a semen sample is obtained.
In order to be able to fertilize, the spermatozoa must undergo spermatozoa capacitation, which basically consists of making the spermatozoa pass through a very dense medium, so that only the mobile and better morphological ones are able to pass through it.
This process involves changes in their membranes and is necessary for them to successfully fuse with the oocyte.
In the embryology laboratory, the eggs are merged with the spermatozoa, which can be done with classic IVF or ICSI.
In classical IVF, the egg is placed together with the sperm in a laboratory dish fertilization of the egg by a sperm must take place.
At ICSI (Intracytoplasmic sperm injection), embryologists select a spermatozoon and, with the help of a fine needle (micropipette), they will introduce it into the egg.
The inseminated oocytes will remain in incubators, designed for this purpose and where the optimum temperature, oxygen and CO2 conditions exist for embryo culture. At 16-18 hours post-insemination, we will check the fertilized eggs, which will be pre-embryos from day 1 of development.
After spending several days in the incubator, the embryos will be evaluated daily so that, when they are transferred to the mother’s uterus, we can distinguish the ones with the best quality.
The purpose of embryo culture is to obtain embryos capable of being implanted in the uterus and developing properly, giving rise to the birth of a baby.
This embryo culture is extremely important due to the success of the in vitro fertilization treatment being significantly compromised by the embryo quality.
After the culture and selection of the embryos, patients are notified of the number of embryos we finally have, as well as their quality. Also, the number of embryos to be transferred is decided.
The transfer is performed next to the embryology laboratory and takes only a few minutes. It is painless and does not require anesthesia. Embryos are placed in a fine cannula and, with ultrasound monitoring, they are placed in the uterine fundus.
If we have extra embryos, they will be vitrified for possible later use. Vitrification is a laboratory technique that allows the preservation of embryos in perfect conditions and for an undetermined time, until they are needed again for another pregnancy.
A pregnancy test will be carried out after approximately 14 days.